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Ender“老湿”:双CCIE(R&S CCIE、ISP CCIE),思科认证讲师#34XXX,HCIE v2.0第一人。毕业于东北大学电子商务专业。在原公司及其他企业参与的重点项目和培训有: R&S CCIE专题课 SP CCIE专题课 思科支蜀援川项目 索尼中国(无锡)NP课程 能在这里找到我:QQ群106111081 我的微博:weibo.com/enderjoe

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Yeslab安德文档:IPv6有状态自动配置地址  

2013-03-06 13:46:38|  分类: 安德的IPv6视频和 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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IPv6有状态自动配置地址

目录

IPv6有状态自动配置地址... 1

一、理论支持和实验目的... 1

三、实验步骤... 2

1、设置和观察M bitO bit. 2

2、无状态自动配置:保留O位置位1M位置位 0,观察R4通过DHCPv6获得的其他参数情况     3

3、设置M bit置位,从DHCP server获得地址(注意某些命令只有15.0以上IOS才支持)     5

 

 

一、理论支持和实验目的

IPv6支持有状态自动配置获得地址的方式,这涉及到RA消息中的两个bitM bitO bit。如图所以为RA消息的格式:

Yeslab安德文档:IPv6有状态自动配置地址 - ender.joe - Yeslab_安德(Ender)的博客
 

M是管理地址的配置标记。如果设置了该位,始发路由器就会利用DHCPv6协议来告诉链路上的主机使用有状态地址自动配置。如果不设置该位,链路上的主机应该使用无状态地址自动配置。

o 是其他的有状态配置标记。当设置该位时,始发路由器就会告诉所在链路上的主机使用DHCPv6协议来获取其他的链路信息。M标记和0标记可以一起使用。例如,不设置M标记但设置0标记,那么路由器将会告诉链路上的主机使用无状态地址自动配置,但对于其他的配置参数则不考虑DHCPv6服务器的存在

二、拓扑描述

如图所示,每个设备上的地址设计为20xy::x/64如敝R3连接R4的接口地址为2034::3/64

2-IPv6无状态获得地址.jpg

三、实验步骤

1、设置和观察M bitO bit

R3(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing

R3(config)#

R3(config)#int f0/1

R3(config-if)ipv6 address 2034::3/64

R3(config-if)#ipv6 nd managed-config-flag

R3(config-if)#ipv6 nd other-config-flag

!

R3#debug ipv6 nd

  ICMP Neighbor Discovery events debugging is on

*Mar  4 19:44:21.443: ICMPv6-ND: Received RS on FastEthernet0/1 from FE80::C801:A4FF:FE68:6

*Mar  4 19:44:21.447: ICMPv6-ND: Sending solicited RA on FastEthernet0/1

*Mar  4 19:44:21.447: ICMPv6-ND: Request to send RA for FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6

*Mar  4 19:44:21.451: ICMPv6-ND: Sending RA from FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6 to FF02::1 on FastEthernet0/1

*Mar  4 19:44:21.455: ICMPv6-ND:     Managed address configuration---M 位置为的RA消息

*Mar  4 19:44:21.455: ICMPv6-ND:     Other stateful configuration---O 位置为的RA消息

*Mar  4 19:44:21.459: ICMPv6-ND:     MTU = 1500

*Mar  4 19:44:21.459: ICMPv6-ND:     prefix = 2034::/64 onlink autoconfig

*Mar  4 19:44:21.463: ICMPv6-ND:             2592000/604800 (valid/preferred)

R3#

*Mar  4 19:44:22.511: ICMPv6-ND: Received NA for 2034::C801:A4FF:FE68:6 on FastEthernet0/1 from 2034::C801:A4FF:FE68:6

2、无状态自动配置:保留O位置位1M位置位 0,观察R4通过DHCPv6获得的其他参数情况

R3(config)#int f0/1

R3(config-if)#no ipv6 nd managed-config-flag

此时R4需要通过R3DHCP服务获得除地址之外的其他参数

R3(config)#ipv6 dhcp pool Ender ---进入DHCPv6配置模式

R3(config-dhcp)#?         

IPv6 DHCP configuration commands:

  default            Set a command to its defaults

  dns-server         DNS servers

  domain-name        Domain name to complete unqualified host names

  exit               Exit from DHCPv6 configuration mode

  import             Import options

  information        Information refresh option

  nis                NIS server options

  nisp               NISP server options

  no                 Negate a command or set its defaults

  prefix-delegation  IPv6 prefix delegation

  sip                SIP server options

  sntp               SNTP server options

 

R3(config-dhcp)#domain-name www.yeslab.net

R3(config-dhcp)#dns-server 2033::3---设置DNS参数和域名参数

!

R3(config)#int f0/1

R3(config-if)#ipv6 dhcp server Ender---应用该DHCP server

Client端:

R4(config-if)#ipv6 address autoconfig

!

验证和观察:

R4#debug ipv6 dhcp

-----------------------------------------------省略----------------------------------------------

Mar  4 19:51:26.195:   type REPLY(7), xid 16276064

*Mar  4 19:51:26.195:   option SERVERID(2), len 10

*Mar  4 19:51:26.199:     00030001CA02A4680008

*Mar  4 19:51:26.199:   option CLIENTID(1), len 10

*Mar  4 19:51:26.203:     00030001CA01A4680008

*Mar  4 19:51:26.203:   option DNS-SERVERS(23), len 16

*Mar  4 19:51:26.203:     2033::3

*Mar  4 19:51:26.207:   option DOMAIN-LIST(24), len 16

*Mar  4 19:51:26.207:     www.yeslab.net

*Mar  4 19:51:26.207: IPv6 DHCP: Adding server FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6

*Mar  4 19:51:26.211: IPv6 DHCP: Processing options

*Mar  4 19:51:26.215: IPv6 DHCP: Configuring DNS server 2033::3

*Mar  4 19:51:26.215: IPv6 DHCP: Configuring domain name www.yeslab.net

*Mar  4 19:51:26.215: IPv6 DHCP: DHCPv6 changes state from INFORMATION-REQUEST to IDLE (REPLY_RECEIVED) on FastEthernet0/1

!

R4#sh ipv6 interface fastEthernet 0/1

FastEthernet0/1 is up, line protocol is up

  IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::C801:A4FF:FE68:6

  No Virtual link-local address(es):

  Stateless address autoconfig enabled---现在还是开启了无状态自动配置

  Global unicast address(es):

    2034::C801:A4FF:FE68:6, subnet is 2034::/64 [EUI/CAL/PRE]

      valid lifetime 2591991 preferred lifetime 604791

  Joined group address(es):

    FF02::1

    FF02::1:FF68:6

  MTU is 1500 bytes

  ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds

  ICMP redirects are enabled

  ICMP unreachables are sent

  ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1

  ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds (using 36991)

  Default router is FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6 on FastEthernet0/1

R4#sh ipv6 dhcp interface f0/1

FastEthernet0/1 is in client mode

  State is IDLE (1)

  Information refresh timer expires in 23:56:57

  List of known servers:

    Reachable via address: FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6

    DUID: 00030001CA02A4680008

    Preference: 0

    Configuration parameters:---DHCP 服务器获得了如下消息

      DNS server: 2033::3

      Domain name: www.yeslab.net

      Information refresh time: 0

  Rapid-Commit: disabled

3、设置M bit置位,从DHCP server获得地址(注意某些命令只有15.0以上IOS才支持)

之前实验的配置依旧保留

R3

ipv6 dhcp pool Ender

 address prefix 2034:3434::/64---设置前缀

 dns-server 2033::3

 domain-name www.yeslab.net

 

R4

R4(config-if)#ipv6 enable ---必须配置该命令让接口获得link-local地址作为DHCP源,才能发送DHCP报文

R4(config-if)#ipv6 address dhcp---注意该命令才是DHCP客户端命令

R4#sh ipv6 int f0/1

Fastethernet0/1 is up, line protocol is up

  IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:400

  No Virtual link-local address(es):

  Global unicast address(es):

    2034:3434::692D:6296:2D18:9B9A, subnet is 2034:3434::692D:6296:2D18:9B9A/128

  Joined group address(es):

    FF02::1

    FF02::1:FF00:400

    FF02::1:FF18:9B9A

  MTU is 1500 bytes

  ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds

  ICMP redirects are enabled

  ICMP unreachables are sent

  ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1

  ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds (using 30000)

  ND NS retransmit interval is 1000 milliseconds

!

R4#sh ipv6 dhcp interface f0/1

Fastethernet0/0 is in client mode

  Prefix State is IDLE---前缀信息为空

  Address State is OPEN---地址状态为OPEN,意味着获得了地址

  Renew for address will be sent in 11:56:11

  List of known servers:

    Reachable via address: FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:230

    DUID: 00030001AABBCC000200

    Preference: 0

    Configuration parameters:

      IA NA: IA ID 0x00030001, T1 43200, T2 69120

        Address: 2034:3434::692D:6296:2D18:9B9A/128

                preferred lifetime 86400, valid lifetime 172800

                expires at Mar 06 2013 08:21 PM (172572 seconds)

      DNS server: 2033::3

      Domain name: www.yeslab.net

      Information refresh time: 0

  Prefix Rapid-Commit: disabled

  Address Rapid-Commit: disabled

!

R3#sh ipv6 dhcp pool

DHCPv6 pool: Ender

  Address allocation prefix: 2034:3434::/64 valid 172800 preferred 86400 (1 in use, 0 conflicts)

  DNS server: 2033::3

  Domain name: www.yeslab.net

  Active clients: 1---已经有一个活动的客户端

优化:设置valid时间和prefer时间:

 

R2(config-dhcpv6)#address prefix 2034:3434::/64 lifetime  600 590

DHCP Agent命令为:接口下

ipv6 dhcp relay destination ..

如:

Router(config-if) ipv6 dhcp relay destination FE80::250:A2FF:FEBF:A056 ethernet 4/3

 

附:以下为DHCPv6报文的工作过程和debug消息

Yeslab安德文档:IPv6有状态自动配置地址 - ender.joe - Yeslab_安德(Ender)的博客

客户端:

*Mar  4 12:33:15.452: IPv6 DHCP: Sending SOLICIT to FF02::1:2 on Ethernet0/0---第一个包为solicit消息,目标地址为保留的FF02::1:2

*Mar  4 12:33:15.461: IPv6 DHCP: Received ADVERTISE from FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:230 on Ethernet0/0

*Mar  4 12:33:15.461: IPv6 DHCP: Adding server FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:230

*Mar  4 12:33:16.589: IPv6 DHCP: Sending REQUEST to FF02::1:2 on Ethernet0/0---第三个报文为request报文

*Mar  4 12:33:16.589: IPv6 DHCP: DHCPv6 address changes state from SOLICIT to REQUEST (ADDR_ADVERTISE_RECEIVED) on Ethernet0/0

*Mar  4 12:33:16.589: IPv6 DHCP: Received REPLY from FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:230 on Ethernet0/0---从客户端收到了reply报文,以确认该地址

*Mar  4 12:33:16.589: IPv6 DHCP: Processing options

*Mar  4 12:33:16.589: IPv6 DHCP: Adding address 2034:3434::C9B0:9626:ED5A:9BC1/128 to Ethernet0/0

*Mar  4 12:33:16.590: IPv6 DHCP: T1 set to expire in 295 seconds

*Mar  4 12:33:16.590: IPv6 DHCP: T2 set to expire in 472 seconds

*Mar  4 12:33:16.590: IPv6 DHCP: Configuring DNS server 2033::3

R4#

*Mar  4 12:33:16.590: IPv6 DHCP: Configuring domain name www.yeslab.net

*Mar  4 12:33:16.590: IPv6 DHCP: DHCPv6 address changes state from REQUEST to OPEN (ADDR_REPLY_RECEIVED) on Ethernet0/0

服务器端:

Mar  4 12:33:15.452: IPv6 DHCP: Received SOLICIT from FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:400 on Ethernet0/3

*Mar  4 12:33:15.452: IPv6 DHCP: Using interface pool Ender

*Mar  4 12:33:15.452: IPv6 DHCP: Creating binding for FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:400 in pool Ender

*Mar  4 12:33:15.452: IPv6 DHCP: Binding for IA_NA 00030001 not found

*Mar  4 12:33:15.452: IPv6 DHCP: Allocating IA_NA 00030001 in binding for FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:400

*Mar  4 12:33:15.452: IPv6 DHCP: Looking up pool 2034:3434::/64 entry with username '00030001AABBCC00040000030001'

*Mar  4 12:33:15.452: IPv6 DHCP: Poolentry for user not found

*Mar  4 12:33:15.452: IPv6 DHCP: Allocated new address 2034:3434::C9B0:9626:ED5A:9BC1

R2#

*Mar  4 12:33:15.452: IPv6 DHCP: Allocating address 2034:3434::C9B0:9626:ED5A:9BC1 in binding for FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:400, IAID 00030001

*Mar  4 12:33:15.452: IPv6 DHCP: Updating binding address entry for address 2034:3434::C9B0:9626:ED5A:9BC1

*Mar  4 12:33:15.452: IPv6 DHCP: Setting timer on 2034:3434::C9B0:9626:ED5A:9BC1 for 60 seconds

*Mar  4 12:33:15.452: IPv6 DHCP: Sending ADVERTISE to FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:400 on Ethernet0/3---在该接口上发送了advertise消息

*Mar  4 12:33:15.452: ether_vencap:(1975)

 

*Mar  4 12:33:16.589: IPv6 DHCP: Received REQUEST from FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:400 on Ethernet0/3

*Mar  4 12:33:16.589: IPv6 DHCP: Using interface pool Ender

*Mar  4 12:33:16.589: IPv6 DHCP: Looking up pool 2034:3434::/64 entry with username '00030001AABBCC00040000030001'

*Mar  4 12:33:16.589: IPv6 DHCP: Poolentry for user found

*Mar  4 12:33:16.589: IPv6 DHCP: Found address 2034:3434::C9B0:9626:ED5A:9BC1 in binding for FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:400, IAID 00030001

*Mar  4 12:33:16.589: IPv6 DHCP: Updating binding address entry for address 2034:3434::C9B0:9626:ED5A:9BC1

*Mar  4 12:33:16.589: IPv6 DHCP: Setting timer on 2034:3434::C9B0:9626:ED5A:9BC1 for 600 seconds

R2#

*Mar  4 12:33:16.589: IPv6 DHCP: Sending REPLY to FE80::A8BB:CCFF:FE00:400 on Ethernet0/3--发送了reply消息

 

实验完成

欢迎大家继续关注Ender的文档以及更多视频

http://www.yeslab.net/ender/

http://ender.joe.blog.163.com/

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