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Ender“老湿”:双CCIE(R&S CCIE、ISP CCIE),思科认证讲师#34XXX,HCIE v2.0第一人。毕业于东北大学电子商务专业。在原公司及其他企业参与的重点项目和培训有: R&S CCIE专题课 SP CCIE专题课 思科支蜀援川项目 索尼中国(无锡)NP课程 能在这里找到我:QQ群106111081 我的微博:weibo.com/enderjoe

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Yeslab安德文档:IPv6无状态自动配置获得地址  

2013-03-05 11:49:45|  分类: 安德的IPv6视频和 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

  下载LOFTER 我的照片书  |

IPv6无状态自动配置获得地址(TCP/IP路由技术第一卷IPv6部分即将面世

目录

IPv6无状态自动配置获得地址... 1

一、理论支持和实验目的... 1

二、拓扑描述... 1

三、实验步骤... 2

1R3作为路由器开启IPv6路由功能以及接口配置地址... 2

2R4模拟主机,并配置自动获得地址... 2

3、调整邻居发现相关的RA参数... 3

 

 

一、理论支持和实验目的

IPv6地址有两部分组成:前缀部分和接口ID部分

IPv6的一个很大的特点是支持即插即用:路由器发现(Router Discovery)——当一个节点连接到一个IPv6的链路上时,它能够发现本地的路由器,而不必借助动态主机配置协议(DHCP)

前缀发现(prefix)——当一个节点连接到一个IPv6的链路上时,它能够发现分配给该链路的前缀。参数发现(Parameter Discovery)——节点能够发现它所相连的链路的参数,例如

链路的M 和跳数限制等。。主机可以通过RA消息(Router-AdvertisementICMP type 134)中携带的前缀得到地址的前缀部分,同时通过该接口自动生成接口ID部分,从而得到一个完成的128为的IPv6地址,该消息默认情况下200S发送一次。当然主机(或者路由器)也可以主动发送RSrouter solicitICMP Type = 133)消息来主动请求该前缀

实验目的:了解IPv6无状态自动获得地址的理论和操作

二、拓扑描述

如图所示,每个设备上的地址设计为20xy::x/64如敝R3连接R4的接口地址为2034::3/64

Yeslab安德文档:IPv6无状态自动配置获得地址 - ender.joe - Yeslab_安德(Ender)的博客
 

三、实验步骤

1R3作为路由器开启IPv6路由功能以及接口配置地址

R3(config)#ipv6 unicast-routing ---此命令是必须的

R3(config)#interface f0/1

R3(config-if)#ipv6 address 2034::3/64

通过debug消息来查看RA消息

R3#debug ipv6 nd(如果没有观察到,请关闭然后开启接口)

Created RA context for FE80::C800:A4FF:FE0C:6---创建RA消息

*Mar  4 18:49:42.319: ICMPv6-ND: Request to send RA for FE80::C800:A4FF:FE0C:6

*Mar  4 18:49:42.323: ICMPv6-ND: Sending RA from FE80::C800:A4FF:FE0C:6 to FF02::1 on FastEthernet0/1---发送了RA消息,该RA消息目的地址为ff02::1。所有ipv6节点组播地址

*Mar  4 18:49:42.327: ICMPv6-ND:     MTU = 1500---其他参数,MTU 1500

*Mar  4 18:49:42.331: ICMPv6-ND:     prefix = 2034::/64 onlink autoconfig---默认情况下通告该接口拥有的前缀

*Mar  4 18:49:42.331: ICMPv6-ND:             2592000/604800 (valid/preferred)---通告了valid时间和preferred时间

 

2R4模拟主机,并配置自动获得地址

R4(config)#int f0/1

R4(config-if)#no shutdown

R4(config-if)#ipv6 address autoconfig

观察NS消息:

R4#debug ipv6 nd

*Mar  4 18:58:06.275: ICMPv6-ND: Sending RS on FastEthernet0/1---从该接口主动发出了RS消息,来获得前缀

*Mar  4 18:58:06.303: ICMPv6-ND: Received RA from FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6 on FastEthernet0/1---收到了来自R3RA消息

*Mar  4 18:58:06.307: ICMPv6-ND: DELETE -> INCMP: FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6

*Mar  4 18:58:06.311: ICMPv6-ND: Neighbour FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6 on FastEthernet0/1 : LLA ca02.a468.0006

*Mar  4 18:58:06.315: ICMPv6-ND: INCMP -> STALE: FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6

*Mar  4 18:58:06.315: ICMPv6-ND: Selected new default router FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6 on FastEthernet0/1

*Mar  4 18:58:06.323: ICMPv6-ND: Installed default to FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6 on FastEthernet0/1---该版本的IOS会自动安装默认路由

*Mar  4 18:58:06.331: IPv6-Address: Prefix Information change for 2034::/64, 0x0 -> 0xE0

*Mar  4 18:58:06.335: IPv6-Address: Adding prefix 2034::/64 to FastEthernet0/1---增加从R3收到的前缀信息到f0/1接口

*Mar  4 18:58:06.335: IPv6-Address: Adding operating owner prefix configured on FastEthernet0/1

*Mar  4 18:58:06.339: IPv6-Address: Adding operating owner address configured on FastEthernet0/1

*Mar  4 18:58:06.343

R4#: IPv6-Address: Address 2034::C801:A4FF:FE68:6 configured on FastEthernet0/1

*Mar  4 18:58:06.343: IPv6-Addrmgr-ND: DAD request for 2034::C801:A4FF:FE68:6 on FastEthernet0/1

*Mar  4 18:58:06.347: ICMPv6-ND: Sending NS for 2034::C801:A4FF:FE68:6 on FastEthernet0/1

*Mar  4 18:58:06.351: ICMPv6-ND: Autoconfiguring 2034::C801:A4FF:FE68:6 on FastEthernet0/1

*Mar  4 18:58:07.351: IPv6-Addrmgr-ND: DAD: 2034::C801:A4FF:FE68:6 is unique.---这中间会进行一次DAD检测,确保该地址是唯一的才可以使用

*Mar  4 18:58:07.355: ICMPv6-ND: Sending NA for 2034::C801:A4FF:FE68:6 on FastEthernet0/1

*Mar  4 18:58:07.359: IPv6-Address: Address 2034::C801:A4FF:FE68:6/64 is up on FastEthernet0/1

验证:

R4#sh ipv6 interface f0/1

FastEthernet0/1 is up, line protocol is up

  IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::C801:A4FF:FE68:6 ----link-local地址是通过EUI 64的方式自动有MAC地址映射过来

  No Virtual link-local address(es):

  Stateless address autoconfig enabled---该接口通过无状态自动配置获得地址

  Global unicast address(es):

    2034::C801:A4FF:FE68:6, subnet is 2034::/64 [EUI/CAL/PRE]---全局单播地址的前缀从RA消息得到,接口ID部分从link-local地址得到,组成一个完整的IPv6发地址

      valid lifetime 2591876 preferred lifetime 604676---valid time2591876秒,preferred time604676秒,在这个时段内可以主动发起连接,该时间可以控制

  Joined group address(es):

    FF02::1

    FF02::1:FF68:6

  MTU is 1500 bytes

  ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds---ICMP差错报文每100毫秒生成一个

  ICMP redirects are enabled

  ICMP unreachables are sent

  ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1

  ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds (using 23934)

  Default router is FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6 on FastEthernet0/1---默认路由指向了对端的link-local地址

3、调整邻居发现相关的RA参数

R3:

interface FastEthernet0/1

 ipv6 address 2034::3/64

 ipv6 nd prefix 2034::/64 600 599---调整valid timepreferred time

 ipv6 nd ra lifetime 600---调整RA消息生存时间,即在该时间内通告的前缀和参数有效

 ipv6 nd ra interval 4---每四秒钟通告一次RA消息,可以在R3上查看,省略

验证:

R4#sh ipv6 int f0/1

FastEthernet0/1 is up, line protocol is up

  IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::C801:A4FF:FE68:6

  No Virtual link-local address(es):

  Stateless address autoconfig enabled

  Global unicast address(es):

    2034::C801:A4FF:FE68:6, subnet is 2034::/64 [EUI/CAL/PRE]

      valid lifetime 547 preferred lifetime 546---该时间值在想减小,说明我们调整的参数生效了

最后在介绍一下RA抑制特性如下(即不在发送RA消息,那么对端也不能获得前缀消息)

R3(config-if)#ipv6 nd ra suppress

但是该功能在7200模拟器上没有生效

R4上的debug消息:

R4#

*Mar  4 19:19:55.987: ICMPv6-ND: Sending RS on FastEthernet0/1

*Mar  4 19:19:56.039: ICMPv6-ND: Received RA from FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6 on FastEthernet0/1---R3收到了RA消息

*Mar  4 19:19:56.043: ICMPv6-ND: DELETE -> INCMP: FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6

*Mar  4 19:19:56.047: ICMPv6-ND: Neighbour FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6 on FastEthernet0/1 : LLA ca02.a468.0006

我们来查看R3

R3#sh ipv6 int f0/1

FastEthernet0/1 is up, line protocol is up

  IPv6 is enabled, link-local address is FE80::C802:A4FF:FE68:6

  No Virtual link-local address(es):

  Global unicast address(es):

    2034::3, subnet is 2034::/64

  Joined group address(es):

    FF02::1

    FF02::2

    FF02::1:FF00:3

    FF02::1:FF68:6

  MTU is 1500 bytes

  ICMP error messages limited to one every 100 milliseconds

  ICMP redirects are enabled

  ICMP unreachables are sent

  ND DAD is enabled, number of DAD attempts: 1

  ND reachable time is 30000 milliseconds (using 38363)

  ND advertised reachable time is 0 (unspecified)

  ND advertised retransmit interval is 0 (unspecified)

  ND router advertisements are sent every 4 seconds----如果RA消息被抑制,那么这些显示将会消失

  ND router advertisements live for 600 seconds

  ND advertised default router preference is Medium

  ND RAs are suppressed

  Hosts use stateless autoconfig for addresses.

 

实验完成

欢迎大家继续关注Ender的文档以及更多视频:

http://www.yeslab.net/ender/

http://ender.joe.blog.163.com/

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